Several industries such as beverage production, pharmaceutical plants, waste water treatment plants, and so on, rely on water quality monitoring systems to measure and control important water quality indicators. Parameters defining physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water can be used as water quality indicators. Examples include:
- Physical: temperature and turbidity
- Chemical: pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), conductivity, and dissolved oxygen
- Biological: algae and bacteria
The article focuses on chemical measurement parameters that have been historically indispensable and unreliable, posing an implementation burden.